Electric Vehicles Grease Technology: A Comprehensive Study of Greases Used in EVs and Hybrids and How They Differ Compared to Greases Used with Conventional Vehicles

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Dr. Raj Shah: Koehler Instrument Company, Holtsville, NY, USA
Daisy-Ann Norman: Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Materials, University of Stony Brook (SUNY), NY
Dr. Naveen Kumar Pokhriyal: Indian Oil Corporation, R & D center, Faridabad, India
Mr Ajay Kumar Harinarain: Indian Oil Corporation, R & D center, Faridabad, India

Corresponding Author: Dr. Raj Shah, rshah@koehlerinstrument.com
Keywords: Electric Vehicles (EVs), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Hybrid Vehicles (HV),

tribology, automobiles, greases, lubricants, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicles.


Electric mobility with electric vehicles is in vogue across the world in view of environmental concerns being expressed. Passenger car manufacturers are making plans for their product mixes for the present for ICE vehicles and electric vehicles. Established car manufacturers are deploying significant research resources to compete with newcomers vying for a share of this pie. It is significant to note that research resources both from the hardware and software aspects in line with current industry 4.0 trends are being employed to make the product future ready in line with aspirations of the millennial generation which comprise a major segment of the customers. There is a shift from the engine powered mechanical powertrain components to a simpler electric motor-based drive and use of control technologies of electrification components in these advanced propulsion vehicles. This Industry 4.0 impact on worldwide development trends in automotive electrification designs has resulted in the development of novel propulsion systems such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) combining the two worlds and the and battery electric vehicles (EV).

Globally, electric car sales are gradually increasing in response to a push for a better environment and lower greenhouse gas emissions. The relevance of CO2 emission reduction is being evaluated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and electric vehicle (EV) developments have been taking massive leaps in global interest. At this moment in history, the globe has been making progress toward creating a society that is green, eco-friendly, renewable, and long-lasting. As the automobile industry progresses toward a new era in which electric vehicles (EVs) will overshadow internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and presumably dominate the world’s roads, a new set of lubricants and oils must be developed specifically to meet the performance requirements of the EVs electrical and gear components. With the shift towards using rotary machines like motors in these vehicles using rolling element bearings, the grease lubricants will come to play a significant role. The function of grease in rolling element bearings is to remain in contact with and lubricate bearing components without leaking out under the force of gravity, centrifugal action or being squeezed out under pressure. Greases will continue to play their unique role in retaining their properties under shear at all temperatures it experiences during use. The role of grease lubrication in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) will be examined and compared in this paper to highlight how we as individuals and as a community benefit from safer car usage. This paper also seeks to contribute to a research study on the current state of crucial components utilized in passenger electric vehicles, as well as future and efficiency improvement trends. After a brief historical analysis, we gathered information on current demands and obstacles in electric and hybrid vehicles. The quality of lubricants was then compared, followed by the differences in performance between the vehicles in terms of frictional performance and thermal management.

The above paper and the information contained therein are solely the work of the authors.