Electric Vehicles


By Simon Johns - Dec 18, 2023

As pressure increases from governments and international organisations on original equipment manufacturers to meet strict emissions regulations, most of the major world’s major carmakers are developing battery electric vehicles. There are also a slew of start-ups and pure BEV players, such as the mighty Tesla.

The following list of EV OEMs is non-exhaustive, but highlights the evolving and growing roster of vehicles on offer by region. If you would like to add or suggest amendments to this list, please contact info@lubesnnreases.com. A handy guide to the sustainability of EVs can be found here, too.


Aston Martin

After the stalled Rapid E failed to get past prototype, Aston Martin now plans to launch its first plug-in hybrid, ominously called the Valhalla, followed by an as-yet electric model by 2025. Aston also says all of its models will be available with an electrified powertrain by 2026. Despite a cash injection to the tune of £182 million from a Canadian investor, the British luxury carmaker put the brakes on the limited edition, all-electric Rapide E.

BMW (Alpina, BMW, Mini, Rolls Royce)

High-end German carmaker BMW is bullish about BEVs. Having made its ambitious target to sell 1 million electrified passenger cars by the end of 2021, it now has plans to build six models in the U.S. and start producing its Neue Klasse (“new class”) generation of EVs in Shenyang, China, in 2026. 

Group BEV sales increased by nearly 80% year-on-year, accounting for about 15% of the total sales, up from 9% in 2022.

BMW opted for flexible vehicle architectures, allowing it to fit various models with different drivetrains, including fully electric.

The Mini marque celebrated its 60th anniversary with the global launch of the Mini Electric, which entered into production in November 2019. The company announced in October 2022 it would shift production from the U.K. to China.

Rolls-Royce will launch its first battery EV, CEO Torsten Müller-Ötvös said. While the platform underpinning the Phantom and the Cullinan SUV is designed to accommodate an all-electric power train, a future Rolls-Royce BEV is likely to be a standalone model.

Daimler Benz

Daimler’s Mercedes-Benz rolled out its EQ range with the EQC SUV, which went on sale early 2019. The EQC will likely be followed by other models in the range of various specifications and price points. The company plans to launch the higher-end EQS and the EQV, an electric minivan based on the existing V Class, both around 2020. The next BEV will likely be the EQB in 2021, which is based on the conventional GLB SUV model. An all-electric G Class was confirmed in November 2019.

By 2022, Mercedes-Benz will offer 10 BEVs. The EQ-initiative is backed by an investment worth €10 billion, with another €1 billion earmarked for investment in battery production. It has secured contracts for battery cells through 2030 for a total value of €20 billion.

Earlier in 2019, Daimler’s Smart switched over to an all-electric lineup. The revamp of the Smart ForTwo and Smart ForFour models, first unveiled at Frankfurt, marked the full changeover to electric.

Groupe Renault

Renault was heading toward BEV sales of 65,000 units in 2023. More than half of these were the Megane E-Tech. The company already upgraded its bestselling Zoe in September 2019, overhauling its all-electric drivetrain and interior and tweaking the exterior. The Scenic E-Tech is due in 2024. Renault also introduced the China-only K-ZE in 2019.

The Renault Twingo, developed alongside the Smart ForTwo in partnership with Daimler, is likely to be fitted with a Daimler drivetrain in 2020. It will be one of eight BEVs planned through 2022, which will also include a model that will slot in above the Zoe in the marque’s lineup. Renault may also develop a new platform for BEVs with alliance partners Nissan and Mitsubishi

PSA Group (Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel, Vauxhall)

In 2019, PSA Group launched four new BEVs across three brands. The DS3 Cross Back E-Tense, Opel Corsa-E and the two Peugeot e-models all share the group’s modular e-CMP platform, co-developed with Chinese JV partner Dongfeng. All four cars will go on sale in 2020.

The group may phase out the Citroën C-Zero and Peugeot iOn, based on the aged Mitsubishi iMiEV. In late October, PSA and FCA announced a merger, creating one of the world’s largest automotive groups.

The e-Boxer van is also on its way, with sales anticipated to begin in early next year.

Stellantis (Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, Fiat, Jeep, Lancia, Maserati, RAM)

Italian-American Fiat Chrysler Automobiles in October announced its merger with PSA Group of France, creating the world’s fourth-largest automaker in terms of production and sales. At this stage, it is still too early to predict what this move will mean for FCA’s electrification strategy. The company’s original plans called for 10 BEVs over the next five years. By 2022, its Jeep and Maserati marques will make four BEVs each and Fiat will launch electric versions of its new 500 and 500 Giardiniera.

At present, the group’s only BEV is the 500e, available in the U.S. Also, the group began retooling its Mirafiori plant in Italy in July 2019 for the production of the all-new Fiat 500e for the European market. Production is expected to begin in Spring 2020. Over time, the 500e will be joined by a more affordable BEV, a model that Fiat hinted at in March when it presented the Centoventi concept.

In 2023, Ford Europe will launch its first BEV using Volkswagen’s modular electric toolkit (known as MEB) architecture as part of July 2019 deal that saw the two manufacturers deepen cooperation. Ford aims to sell 600,000 MEB-based BEVs over a six-year period. Talks are underway for a second MEB model.


The first Turkish EV Togg rolled off the production at the end of October 2022. The company said it will make 17,000-18,000 SUVs in 2023 and gradually increase production to hit a target of 1 million units by 2030.

Volkswagen Group (Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Cupra, Lamborghini, Seat, Skoda, Porsche, Volkswagen

Volkswagen Group upped the ante in 2019 when it announced it will launch close to 70 new electric models, instead of a previously announced 50, over the next decade. The German car giant is targeting production of up to 22 million such vehicles in the coming 10 years. More than €30 billion is earmarked for electrification alone, and EVs will have a 40%share of the group’s fleet by 2030. Battery procurement agreements are in place with Chinese venture CATL, as well as Korean companies LG Chem, SK Innovation and Samsung.

VW kicked off its move toward EVs with the ID.3 in September 2019. Production began in November, with first deliveries expected in the middle of 2020. Three versions are planned, with the 420-km, mid-range model to launch first. VW wants the ID.3 to become as iconic as the Beetle or the Golf before it.

The ID.4 SUV will be the second model of the family of five ID vehicles. Production began in mid-2020 in the Zwickau plant.

At the 2019 Los Angeles Auto Show, VW showcased the ID Space Vizzion station wagon concept, which should hit markets at the end of 2021.

The ID models use VW’s so-called modular electrification toolkit platform, to which Ford gained access as part of a comprehensive agreement between the two manufacturers in 2019. The platform will also be used by VW subsidiaries Skoda and Seat. The latter will launch a rebadged version of the ID.3, tentatively called El Born, while Skoda will use the MEB for a coupe-style SUV based on its Kodiaq. Both are slated for launch in 2020.

The three brands – Seat, Skoda and Volkswagen – also launched an upgraded version of the group’s all-electric supermini in 2019 (Seat Mii Electric, Skoda Citigo e iV and the VW e-Up.) Seat will launch six electric models by 2021, while Skoda is targeting five by 2025.

Audi began deliveries of its E-tron in 2019 and unveiled the E-tron Sportback in Los Angeles in November. In China, the German luxury brand sells the Q2 E-tron. By 2025, Audi aims to have 20 BEVs in its model lineup. The marque’s upcoming launch is the E-tron GT, which shares its underpinnings with the Porsche Taycan.

Porche unveiled the Taycan at the Frankfurt International Motor Show. It is available with three different power outputs, and will be joined by a Cross Turismo version in 2021. Porsche in 2019 also announced that the 2021 replacement for the Macan SUV would be all-electric. Porsche has a 15.5% share in Croatian manufacturer Rimac Automobili, which produces electric supercars.

Bugatti presented an all-electric, three-quarter-scale version of the legendary Type 35 in 2019. Labelled the Baby II, all 500 planned units were sold within three weeks. While no Bugatti BEV is planned for the foreseeable future, CEO Stephan Winkelmann said in March 2019 that he could foresee the brand “doing a battery EV.”

Luxury marque Bentley is working towards building a BEV and believes there would be demand for one from its customers, Chief Executive Adrian Hallmark said in July 2019. However, Hallmark thinks battery technology that meets Bentley’s requirements will not be available until after 2025.

Supercar manufacturer Lamborghini believes current battery technology cannot deliver the level of performance that its clientele expects from the marque, and so is working with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop one. Lamborghini expected tests to conclude in 2019, after which the firm began development of the Lanzador, expected to hit the roads in 2028.

North America


The AC Cobra is the stuff of motoring legend. The souped-up British-American roadster has been resurrected again as the very limited edition Scorpion battery EV. A range of 150 miles comes from a 54 kWh battery and the 230 Watt motor delivers zero to 60 miles per hour in 6.7 seconds using a Tesla Model S power train. The Tesla Model 3 punts up to 60 from a standing start in 3.2 seconds and goes 250 miles on a charge. An AC Cobra EV can be yours for an eye-popping U.S.$185,000.


Founded in 2015 by owner Robert Bollinger, the United States-based Bollinger Motors pivoted to commercial trucks, and now produces the B4. It had attempted to build two Land Rover-inspired BEVs – the Bollinger 1 SUV and Bollinger 2. The vehicles were expected to enter into production in 2020 with first deliveries in early 2021.

In September 2022, Mullen Automotive Inc. bought a controlling stake in the company and is planning to revive the cancelled production of the consumer trucks after reservations reached 50,000. The company now intends to launch a medium-duty truck in 2024.


U.S. EV maker Fisker has had a few bumps in the road getting its Ocean SUV off the ground. The California-based company has initially approached Volkswagen for a license to use the MEB platform, but negotiations are so far yet to conclude. The company signed a production contract with Austrian firm Magna Steyr, with work starting in 2022.

The car is aimed squarely at the So-Cal market, with components made from recycled plastics and a vegan interior.


Ford Motor Co. earmarked $11 billion for investment in electrified vehicles, more than double its previously announced investment figure. By 2022, the U.S. giant aimed to have 16 BEVs in its global lineup, it said. The Mustang Mach-E, its first BEV, was launched in early 2020, followed by the F-150 e-truck in 2022. By the end of 2022, the production lineup was three.

GM (Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac, Holden, Baojun, Wuling, Faw Jiefang)

The American car giant GM plans to introduce two more EVs in the next 18 months. In March 2019, the U.S. company said it would invest $300 million in its Orion Township manufacturing facility in Michigan for the production of a new Chevrolet BEV. The vehicle, one of the two aforementioned new models, will be based on lessons learned from the Chevrolet Bolt EV and will use an upgraded version of the BEV2 platform. The new vehicles will be offered alongside the Bolt. One of the new models was launched in China in November – the Chevrolet Menlo.

Another 20 BEVs are planned on a new modular EV platform over the next five years. The BEV3 architecture, as it is called, is an important component of efforts to achieve BEV profitability, as it will help reduce development time.

Cadillac, GM’s mature brand, plans to put its Lyriq BEV on the streets by 2022. The car is an SUV that Cadillac hopes will appeal to a younger audience. Specs place the car’s range at a respectable 300 miles using the GM Ultima battery, which is also slated for the Hummer EV. Yes, an electric version of the Hummer, which in its gasoline engine incarnation managed a deplorable 9 miles per gallon, is to hit the streets in 2021.


The luxury rival to Tesla launched its debut Air, which the company claims is the fastest-charging passenger EV on offer and can drive more than 500 miles on a single 300 kW charge.

With a starting price of $840,000, Tesla doesn’t need to look in the rearview mirror quite yet for competition on unit sales. Indeed, in October 2022 Lucid opened a showroom in Saudi Arabia, looking to entice car buyers in the oil-rich country.

The company also announced an SUV was in the works, based on the Air platform.


Another Californian EV maker, Rivian makes the R1T truck and the R1S SUV. Rivian is backed by e-commerce company Amazon, among others, including Ford, which invested $500 million in the company in April 2019. The company was contracted by Amazon to supply 100,000 electric delivery vans. Testing is ongoing in several U.S. cities.

In December 2023, the company announced it would be supplying AT&T with a fleet of EV vans, which boosted its stock value by 33%.


Like him or not, Tesla CEO Elon Musk has likely done more to bring forward the EV revolution than anyone else. The South African CEO’s company is almost unrivalled in terms of sales and earnings, with only China’s BYD as the only serious competitor. The company is projected to hit sales of 1.8 million units in 2023 and unveiled its space-aged-looking Cyber Truck, with deliveries expected in 2024.

The road has been rocky for Musk, who dropped prices in 2022 and early 2023 to shore up sinking sales. After his acquisition of social media platform Twitter, the company’s stock went into free fall.

Tesla’s 1 millionth vehicle rolled off the line in March 2020, a milestone made possible by ramping up production of its entry-level Model 3 in 2019. Now, about 450,000 cars are being delivered per quarter. Capacity is now estimated at 2 million vehicles per year from all of its production sites.

The Model 3 is sailing past annual sales of 500,000 units alone and is now the bestselling BEV in the world, with Tesla knocking out as many units in two-and-a-half years as Nissan has of the Leaf in 10. The Model 3 tops the charts in the U.S., the U.K., Italy, Norway and the Netherlands, among others.

In 2017, Musk unveiled the Roadster, in 2018 the Model Y – a crossbreed of the Model 3 and Model X – and in 2019, the much vaunted Cybertruck.

The company opened a fully automated production line in Shanghai in early 2020, announced plans to build another with an engineering and design center in Berlin and started construction of yet another in Austin, Texas dedicated to making the Cybertruck. There are reports that Musk has Mexico and Greece in mind for plants too.



In 2020, Chinese startup Aiways launched an all-electric SUV called the U5. The company is aiming for production capacity of 300,000 vehicles per year and is backed by the Shangrao Mingchi New Energy Innovation Center. The U6 four-door sedan is on its way.

BAIC Motor (Beijing, Beijing Benz, Beijing Hyundai, Beijing Electric Vehicle Company, Fujian Benz)

BJEV, the EV subsidiary of BAIC Motor Co., launched its latest BEV in September 2019. Another six models across three BEV platforms will be produced in the coming two years. The manufacturer sold more than 165,000 units in 2018, second only to Tesla in terms of yearly sales. BAIC’s fully electric EU series was the most popular EV in China between January and August, with more than 65,000 units registered. The company is also known for the all-electric EX and EC Series of passenger cars.

According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, BAIC netted more than U.S. $4 billion in revenue from EVs in 2018. In July 2019, the company picked up a 5% share of Mercedes-Benz’s parent company Daimler, which was already a minority shareholder in BJEV. The Daimler-BAIC JV began sales of its EQC SUV in early November 2019.

BYD (BYD, Denza)

BYD, which stands for the affirmative Build Your Dreams, is one of China’s major EV players, with interests in battery development as well as establishing a presence outside the country. Its newly launched e2, e3 and Qin EV are expected to drive BYD’s sales in the first half of 2020, bolstering the company’s already 24% share of China’s new energy vehicle market in the first half of 2019, according to the company’s interim report.

In July 2019, BYD’s partnership with Toyota officially began for the development of China-only BEVs, and in November the two companies set up a 50-50 JV to that end. The company already has a 50-50 JV with Germany’s Daimler and presented its latest offering, the Denza X EV, in October 2019.


It’s been a rough time for the Chinese startup Byton. Having got into financial hot water because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but managed to scrape through. Its M-Byte is a fairly attractive car with snazzy features, such as a full-width display dash.

Changan Motors

Changan joined with Chinese startup Aiways and manufacturer Jiangling Motor Corp. to set up Jiangling Holding. Aiways will have a 50% share with the remainder split between Changan and Jiangling Motor.

While its JVs with Suzuki and PSA fell through, Changan retains partnerships with Ford Motor Co. and Mazda. Changan-Ford aims to launch 10 electrified passenger cars in China through 2021. Changan-Mazda, too, is looking to introduce its first BEV in 2019, which will use mostly Changan components in a Mazda-designed body. In China, Changan is partnered with EV startup Nio, forming Changan Nio New Energy Vehicle Technology to develop and launch BEVs and HEVs.


BAIC subsidiary Changhe badges BEVs under the name Ideal, which are manufactured in the city of Jiujiang in eastern China. The company reportedly has annual BEV production capacity of 50,000 units.

Chery (BYD, Denza)

Despite being one of the first Chinese BEV manufacturers, Chery has fallen behind its competitors. It currently offers four EVs.

While it is Jaguar Land Rover’s Chinese partner in a local JV, Chery does not build the luxury British-Indian carmaker’s I-Pace in China, even though plans to that end were floated in 2018.

DearCC (DearCC, Enovate)

Shaoxing-based startup DearCC was founded in 2015 and offers the EV10. In 2018, the company launched the upmarket label Enovate, which debuted an all-electric SUV, the MU7, the following year. Enovate also aims to launch the ME-S in 2021. DearCC began construction of as new BEV manufacturing facility in early 2019 with annual capacity of 60,000 vehicles.

Dongfeng (Fengguang, Fengshen, Jungfeng, Venucia)

Dongfeng celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2019 with the launch of the Glory E3. While it has not been confirmed, the Glory E3 is likely to use the e-CMP architecture, jointly developed with PSA of France in tandem with the PSA’s modular vehicle underpinning known as CMP. The vehicle architecture can accommodate both ICE and BEV drive trains, with the e-CMP retooled specifically for BEVs.

Dongfeng has a dedicated EV brand, Junfeng, which offers a full range of all-electric passenger cars. Jungfeng has cooperation agreements with Changan and FAW.

Venucia, originally a marque under the Dongfeng Nissan umbrella, was spun off in 2017 to operate as a separate Dongfeng subsidiary.


Dorcen is the brainchild of Wu Hao, son of former Zotye Chairman Wu Jianzhong, and was founded in 2018. The company is part of Jintan Auto Group and was formerly known as the JMCG Light Vehicle Company. Dorcen offers the E20 all-electric city car and an electric version of the G60 SUV is to follow, called the G60 E.


e.Go is a German startup established in 2015. It will begin sales of its first BEV, the e.GO Life, in 2020. The 3.3-meter-long city car will be available in three versions fitted with a 14.5 kWh, 17.5 kWh or 23.5 kWh battery pack. The company operates from the city of Aachen, on the border with the Netherlands.

FAW (Haima, Hongqi, FAW, Volkswagen, FAW Toyota)

Founded in 1953, FAW is China’s oldest car manufacturer and has established partnerships with global heavyweights VW, Toyota and Mazda. FAW’s other marques are Hongqi and Bestune, as well as subsidiary Haima.

FAW already sells an electric version of the Toyota CH-R, badged as the Ioza, and signed an agreement with Toyota in September 2019 to develop and market hybrids, plug-in hybrids, fuel-cell EVs and BEVs in China. The FAW-Volkswagen partnership makes the e-Golf and e-Bora. The Hongqi E-HS9 SUV is expected to go on sale in China in late 2020.

Subsidiary Haima launched a new range of e-models in 2018, the first of which has been launched, and eventually could include an SUV.

GAC Motor (Trumpchi, GAC Aion, GAC Ghangfeng)

GAC sells its vehicles under the Trumpchi label and launched its first BEV in 2018, called the GS4 EV. The GS4 will also be sold under the Toyota label as part of an alliance between the Japanese manufacturer and GAC. The car was accompanied by the GE3 EV in June 2018.

The Chinese automaker also has other production JVs with Japanese giants Honda and Mitsubishi.

More BEVs are sold by GAC New Energy, often called GAC Aion, which introduced the Aion LX earlier in 2019. Deliveries began in October. Also available are the Aion S, which Toyota aims to sell as iA5.

GAC subsidiary Ghangfeng has its own Leopaard label for SUVs.

Geely (Geely, Jetour London EV Company, Lotus Cars, Lynk & Co, Polestar, Proton, Volvo Cars)

Geely launched its new Geometry lineup in March 2019 with the Geometry A sedan, followed by the Geometry C hatchback. Another 10 BEVs are planned under the new brand name. Also in 2019, Geely snapped up a 50% share of Daimler microcar subsidiary Smart. The German company retains the other half.

Geely wants new energy vehicles, including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery EVs, to have a 90% share of sales in 2020.

Volvo Cars of Sweden introduced its first BEV in 2019, called the XC40 P8. A less powerful P4 version is due in the fourth quarter of 2021. The next-generation XC90 will also gain an electric drivetrain when it enters production in 2021. Three more BEVs are planned, each available with either a P4 or P8 drivetrain. By 2025, the company is aiming for half of its global sales to be from BEVs.

Volvo spin-off, Polestar, launched a BEV in 2019 as well, called the Polestar 2. The vehicle, billed as yet another luxury Tesla rival. Deliveries began in Europe in mid-2020 and will jostle for market share with Volvo’s XC40 P8 BEV. The Polestar 2 will eventually be joined by the Polestar 3, which is said to be an SUV.

Things at Lotus finally kicked into high gear with the unveiling of the Evija in 2019. Although production was scheduled to start in 2020, delays to testing have pushed back the delivery date to mid-2011. Limited to 130 units, the car will be powered by four electric motors capable of delivering 368 kW each. The Evija will likely carry a price tag of around $2 million. There are also plans to make the Lotus Lambda SUV available by the end of the year, with two more BEVs – the Sigma and the Alpha – in a few years.

The London EV Company, the entity behind the new all-electric TX taxi, is another Geely subsidiary. The TX became fully certified to carry customers at the end of 2017. The first delivery was made in January 2018.

Great Wall Motor (Haval, Great Wall, Ora, Wey)

Great Wall Motor launched an all-electric vehicle brand in August 2018, named Ora. The company’s first, the iQ5, went on sale immediately after the launch of the brand. The R1 city car followed in January 2019, with the R2 slated for the following year. Another four models are scheduled for launch through 2022.

Hawtai Motor (Renault, Dacia, Alpine, Lada, Renault Samsung Motors)

Founded in 2000, Hawtai Motor produces its own vehicles, diesel engines and automatic transmissions.


Honda unveiled the production version of its Urban EV Concept at the Frankfurt International Auto Show in September 2019. Called the Honda-e, the car is available in two power outputs of 100 kW or 113 kW. Honda showcased a sister model, the Sports EV Concept, in Tokyo in 2017, hinting at the possibility of launching a second, similarly styled BEV.

In 2018, Guangqi Honda, the company’s JV with the GAC Group, presented the China-only Everus VE-1. It is based on the Honda Vezel, which is sold as the HR-V in other parts of the world.

Hyundai Motor Group (Hyundai, Kia)

Hyundai announced in August 2020 it will launch its “rebirthed” all-electric Ioniq, comprising two SUVs and a sedan. Earlier in the year, the company said it would build an EV production line in Singapore to be open by October, where it plans to make 30,000 vehicles a year.

The Korean automaker has big plans to snag 10% of the global EV market. It showcased the Pony Coupe Concept at the Frankfurt International Auto Show in September 2019 and said its upcoming BEVs will take stylistic cues from it.

Hyundai also announced in 2019 it had joined the Ionity JV, which is working to roll out a network of fast chargers across Europe. Its partners are BMW, Ford, Daimler and the VW. Ionity chargers have a maximum output of 350 kW. In order to make full use of that capacity, vehicles would have to have 800 V architecture. So far, only Aston Martin and Porsche have such vehicles on offer. Hyundai and Kia will equip their vehicles with the technology by 2021. The alliance is targeting 14 BEVs by 2025.

JAC Motors (JAC, SOL)

JAC Motors sells its BEVs under the IEV name. Its most recent addition, the iEV S4, was launched at the 2019 Shanghai Motor Auto Show. In July 2018, JAC Motors, VW and Seat announced a partnership that will see the companies jointly set up a new research and development center to explore new energy vehicle designs.

The JAC-Volkswagen JV launched the first vehicle of the newly created SOL brand, the ex20, in September 2019.

Jiangling Motor Corp. (JMEV)

Better known as JMC, the Chinese manufacturer is Ford’s partner. Ford has a 32% share in JMC. The company inaugurated its new energy vehicle production center earlier in 2019. It has a yearly production capacity of 100,000 JMEV vehicles. The JMEV JV is owned by Renault.

The JMEV E160, E200, E200S and E400 will be produced in Kunming, southwest China, and the E50, E180, E300 and E500 will follow in due course. The company has earmarked some $705 million for a new model lineup comprising all-electric SUVs and MPVs. It will develop three new platforms for a total of 10 models. JMEV is targeting a 10% share of China’s BEV market in 2020.


Chinese EV maker Kandi began presales in mid-August in the United, becoming the first Chinese EV maker to crack the U.S. market. Not only that, the K27 compact will be the cheapest EV on offer in the U.S. market. Kandi says it is mulling a production facility in the U.S. to meet demand.


The Chinese startup Leapmotor has two models under its belt: the sporting 501 and the small T03.

Lifan Motor

Lifan is a Chinese motorcycle and automobile manufacturer based in Chongqing. It mostly builds internal combustion engine cars, microvans and motorcycles but also has a small range of EVS. Its claim to fame is a trademark dispute with Honda over Lifan’s “Hongda” brand. Honda won its suit.

Mahindra Automotive (Mahindra, Automobili Pininfarina, SsangYong)

One of 11 group companies, India’s Mahindra Automotive serves the European market with its SsangYong brand. Mahindra acquired the South Korean company in 2011.

In the first quarter of 2021, SsangYong will launch its first BEV – an electrified version of the petrol Korando SUV.

While Mahindra’s own BEVs are small, low-end models, it also operates at the top end of the market through Automobili Pininfarina, which unveiled its Battista earlier in 2019. Production will be limited to 150 vehicles, which will be priced at around €2 million, excluding taxes. A second Pininfarina BEV is expected in 2021 and will be an SUV.


Mazda presented its first BEV – the MX-30, based on Mazda’s own EV architecture – at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2019. In 2017, Mazda teamed up with Japan’s Toyota and automotive technology developer Denso to establish EV C.A. Spirit, a JV aimed at developing basic EV architecture. Suzuki, Subaru, Hino Motors and Daihatsu joined EV C.A. Spirit in early 2018.

Mitsubishi Motors

Mitsubishi showcased the e-Evolution Concept in 2018, hinting at the launch of an all-electric SUV in the near future. It presented the China-only Eupheme EV later that year through the GAC-Mitsubishi JV.


Chinese startup Nio is pitched by some as the Chinese Tesla, and has indeed received considerable financial backing after an NYSE listing in September 2018, signaling investor confidence in its offering, at least then. The company has since faced an uphill battle, suffering losses of $390 million and $462 million in the first and second quarters of 2019. It also slashed its workforce by 2,100 people. To make matters worse, Nio recalled close to 5,000 units of its ES8 SUV following battery fires.

Things took and upward turn in 2020, when the company went back into the black with solid sales figures and hitting market value of $20 billion in August.

Nissan Motor Corp. (Nissan, Infiniti, Datsun)

Nissan introduced the Leaf e+ in 2019, an upgraded version of the Leaf, carrying a 60-kWh battery pack instead of the 40-kWh version fitted in the regular Leaf. Nissan uses the Leaf platform for the China-only Sylphy BEV, produced by Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle Co., Nissan’s Chinese JV. Dongfeng Nissan aims to launch another five BEVs, which will be badged Nissan, Venucia and Dongfeng.

In total, Nissan is targeting development of eight new BEVs over the coming four years, including a crossover EV based on the IMx concept and a so-called “kei,” or light car, the smallest class of highway-legal motor vehicles in Japan. Between 2021 and 2025, Nissan’s luxury division Infiniti will also make a BEV.


This three-company alliance formed by Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi aims to present 12 BEVs over the next four years. The models will be based on common platforms and share components. It is unclear how the stated plan relates to claims by Renault and Nissan to launch eight BEVs each.

SAIC Motor (Roewe, MG, Maxus)

SAIC Motor includes SAIC-General Motors and SAIC-Volkswagen, among other JVs, as well as Roewe and MG. Roewe launched its first BEV sedan, the ER6, in 2020.

SAIC reintroduced the MG badge in Europe with the launch of ZS SUV in 2019. MG plans to make a station wagon (estate) called the MG5.


In 2023, Subaru will launch its first-ever all-electric architecture – the e-Subaru Global Platform – with the Solterra, an all-wheel-drive EV. The company reached an agreement in 2019 with Toyota on the joint development of a new EV platform. While it will initially be developed for a compact SUV, it could also underpin sedans in the C and D segments of the market.


Apart from Suzuki’s proposed participation in the EV Common Architecture Spirit JV with Toyota, Mazda and Denso, little is known about the company’s strategy for BEVs. Maruti Suzuki, the company’s Indian JV, hinted it will launch a BEV in India in 2023.

Tata Motors (Tata, Jaguar, Land Rover)

Tata Motors announced in 2019 that it would launch its first BEV, the Nexon EV, in the first quarter of 2020. Jaguar, too, will launch a new BEV in 2020, known as the XJ. Jaguar’s flagship model for the past 51 years, the XJ will no longer be available with an internal combustion engine. It will be built at Castle Bromwich, U.K., where, according to Jaguar Land Rover, “a range of new electrified vehicles” will come off the assembly line.

In June 2019, Jaguar Land Rover announced a tie-up with BMW Group for the development of next-generation electric drive units.

Toyota Motor Corp. (Toyota, Lexus, Daihatsu)

Japanese giant Toyota wants half of its worldwide sales to be electrified by 2025, equating to 5.5 million units, a target that it previously set for 2030. It already achieves part of this 5.5. million with its famous Prius hybrid, but also wants a further 1 million units to be BEVs and fuel-cell EVs.

At the 2019 Tokyo Motor Show, the company showcased its range of ultra-compact BEVs, hinting the company will be moving into the all-electric city car segment in the near future.

Its first BEV model was introduced in China earlier in the year, known as the Guangzhou-Toyota CH-R. Toyota in China already offered the rebadged GAC GS4, selling it as ix4. Chinese company FAW will sell the model as the Ioza.

Toyota is currently also working with Subaru on the vehicle architecture for a new all-electric SUV.

In 2019, Toyota also concluded agreements with Chinese companies BYD and Contemporary Amperex Technology Company, or CATL, for the supply of batteries for future EVs. It will also set up a 50-50 JV with BYD for the development and rollout of new BEVs for the Chinese market.

At the November 2019 Guangzhou International Motor Show, the upmarket Lexus brand unveiled its first BEV, the UX 300e, based on the sub-compact gasoline engine UX SUV. The order books were open to buyers in Europe and China in August 2020. The UX 300e is an attempt to lure customers from the Tesla Y and the Volvo XC40. Lexus also registered the name RZ 450e, reportedly another BEV designed from scratch as a battery car.


The ethos of the Soviet car industry lives on in the functionally named and affordable and City Module 1 BEV. With a price tag of €5,200, it may replace the Trabant as the quintessential Russian ride.

Zotye Automobile

Zotye Automobile, a subsidiary of Zotye Holding, is a privately owned Chinese conventional automaker. In 2019, Zotye and Ford set up Zotye Ford Automobile Co., a 50-50 joint venture that will concentrate on the development and manufacturing of BEVs and target output of 100,000 units per year. Meanwhile, Zotye Automobile is aiming for 1 million units, including new energy vehicles, sold by 2025.

Startups, Newcomers and Other Known BEV Manufacturers 

Aspark (Japan)
CHJ Automotive (China)
Evergrande New Energy Automotive Group (China)
Foton (China)
Hang Teng (China)
Henan Suda (China)
Hybrid Kinetic (China)
Faraday Future (U.S./China)
First One Mile Mobility (Thailand)
Fresco Motors (Norway)
Lightyear (The Netherlands)
Link Tour (China)
Luxgen (China)
Kaiyun Motors (China)
Microlino (Germany)
Neuron (U.S.)
Neta (China)
Ola Electric (India)
Qiantu Motors (China)
Qifeng (China)
Rimac Automobili (Croatia)
SF Motors (China/U.S.)
Singulato (China)
Sitech (China)
Sono Motors (Germany)
Sondors (China)
Soueast (China)
Thunder Power (China)
Uniti One (Sweden)
Weichai (China)
Yema (China)
Zacua (China)
Zhi Dou (China)
Zinoro (China)

Related Topics

Electric Vehicles    Latest Headlines    

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